Molecular surveillance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and Plasmodium ovale in Ghana
Malaria is an acute febrile illness caused by Plasmodium parasites, which are spread to people through the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. In Ghana, Plasmodium falciparum is the most predominant parasite species responsible for most malaria cases, however, there is a recent increase in the prevalence of non-falciparum Plasmodium species in Ghana, some of which have been associated with clinical malaria. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd) is an erythrocyte polymorphism reported to offer protection against malaria but the degree of protection is not well understood. It is unclear if both hemizygotes (A-) and heterozygotes (AA-) offer protection against severe malaria or bias towards females, as other studies have shown. The most effective treatment for P. ovale requires the use of primaquine, which is known to cause hemolysis in individuals with G6PDd. Thus the need to conduct routine surveillance of G6PD deficiency amongst Ghanaians as well as the presence of P. ovale circulating in Ghana.
The main objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence and distribution of G6PD genotypic variants as well as P. ovale in Ghana.
The prevalence of G6PDd and P. ovale has been assessed in samples collected from across Ghana in 2018. A repeat study is underway for samples collected in 2021.
Amoah LE, Asare KK, Dickson D, Abankwa J, Busayo A, et al. (2021) Genotypic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency protects against Plasmodium falciparum infection in individuals living in Ghana. PLOS ONE 16(9): e0257562.